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The chapter deals with the analysis and classification of selected approaches to the quantification of tax shields. Theories are based on the premise of the perfect capital market and a clearly defined corporate debt policy. In this case, the value of tax shield is equal to the tax rate multiplied by financial expenses (FE). If the value of EBIT tax shield formula and other income (OI) is less than the amount of financial expenses, the company does not pay corporate income tax. Nevertheless it generates the tax shield; its value is equal to corporate tax rate times EBIT plus other income according to Eq. This is where corporations in early years, use a number of depreciation methods to lower taxes.

It also means that both new businesses and start-ups can achieve partial tax savings, despite the fact that EBIT and OI cannot cover the value of financial expenses. (25) indicates that the value of tax shield should be a function of EBIT plus OI and not a function of the net income as Liu [8] argued in his theory. (26) expresses the relation between the dependent and independent variables. Arzac and Glosten [23], based on the approach of Miles and Ezzell, developed a unique method which eliminates the discount rate. They derived the formula for the company market value, for the market value of equity and for market value of tax shield using an iterative process. As the name suggests and discussed earlier, the interest tax shield approach refers to the deduction claimed in the tax burden due to the interest expenses.

## Tax Shield: Definition, Formula, Calculation, Meaning, Advantages

Leverage and interest coverage ratio are considered as key determinants of the credit rating and they are quantified by book values. (17) is identical to the MM model [7] but Fernandez claimed it could be valid irrespective of debt policy. Damodaran [21] did not mention the formula for the value of tax shield, but Fernandez [22] derived, according to the Damodaran equation (30), the present value of tax shield that is equal to Eq. This model is being criticized for unrealistic and very restrictive assumptions. Nevertheless, the model is known as the basis for the theory of corporate finance, it clearly defines the upper limit of business value. As a result, to recover, the management may refrain from productive investments or even take their money out from operations to serve the debt amount.

On the other hand, Company B’s taxable income becomes $31m after deducting the $4m in interest expense. Thus on an Interest outgo of $120000, ABC Company will get a T.S. Of $36000, resulting in a reduction of its tax liability by that amount outright. By improving profitability, reducing tax outgo, enabling a more optimized capital structure, etc. (27) expresses the value of levered company as a function of the sum of the present values of these three factors.

## 3. Tax shield valuation theories if market leverage ratio is constant

Because of the tax-deductibility of interest expense, the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) takes into account the tax reduction in its formula. Unlike dividends, interest expense payments reduce the taxable income. The Interest Tax Shield refers to the tax savings resulting from the tax-deductibility of the interest expense on debt borrowings. The payment of interest expense reduces the taxable income and the amount of taxes due – a demonstrated benefit of having debt and interest expense.

These deductions reduce the taxable income of an individual taxpayer or a corporation. Both individuals and corporations are eligible to use a tax shield to reduce their taxable income. This happens through claiming deductions such as medical expenses, mortgage interest, charitable donations, depreciation, and amortization.

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When these deductions are claimed, they reduce the taxable income. According to the studies mentioned above, the capital structure in emerging markets is determined, in addition to factors similar to those in developed countries, by specific factors. These include the development of the capital market, inflation or the size of businesses [37]. The weak development of the capital market, especially bond market, means that the company cannot take advantage of the possibility of issuing a bond. Therefore, it is not possible to determine the market value of debt, and market value-based theories of the tax shield cannot be applied. An appropriate discount rate is the unlevered cost of capital that takes into account the risk of tax benefit.

- The formula for calculating the present value of interest tax shields is consistent with the Harris and Pringle model.
- The real cash outflow stemming from capital expenditures has already occurred, however in U.S.
- But despite providing a handful of benefits, APV is used far less often than WACC in practice, and it is predominantly used in the academic setting.
- If you obtained a mortgage before December 17, 2017, you can deduct up to $1,000,000 of interest.
- The reasoning is that even though we forfeit the $100,000 tax benefit, we gain back the $500,000 in interest expenses (since we are not obliged to pay it out anymore).

To calculate a tax shield, you need to know the value of your tax-deductible expenses and your own individual tax rate. It should be noted that, that equity cash flow is not equal to the taxable income, since any new debt makes equity cash flow increasing without tax increasing. The book value of debt is stochastic and positively correlated with the unlevered equity.

## Is Tax Shield the Same as Tax Savings?

Income, corporate, capital gains, property, inheritance, and sales taxes are among the several types. It is accomplished by utilizing legal deductions such as mortgage interest, medical costs, charity contributions, amortization, and depreciation. Note that the following formula above is only applicable for companies that are already profitable at the taxable income line. The ability to use a home mortgage as a tax shield is a major benefit for many middle-class people whose homes are major components of their net worth.

However, one major difference lies in the discount rate (i.e. the weighted average cost of capital). Tax Shield minimizes the tax bills; it is the only reason taxpayers, individuals or corporations, spend a considerable amount of time determining how much tax levy or credit every year. Interest expenses on certain debts can be tax-deductible, which can make the entire process of debt funding much easier and cheaper for a business. This works in the opposite way to dividend payments, which are not tax-deductible.